Pythagoras, a famous Greek scholar, sathematician, and philosopher, formulated a proof for a theorem that is named for him—the Pythagorean theorem. This theorem states that in any right triangle, the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides.
The Pythagorean theorem for right-angled triangles likely was known long before the time of Pythagoras. It was probably used by the ancient Egyptians to construct the pyramids.
The theorem is quite believable without rigorous proof to anyone willing to expend a modest effort in some experimentation. One method is to draw a number of right-angled triangles in as wide a variety as practicable and measure all of the sides. It will be determined that, for each triangle drawn, the square of the length of the side opposite the right angle is about equal to the sum of the lengths of the squares of the other two sides.
Another method requires the availability of a balance. For this more interesting experiment, construct a right-angled triangle and a square on each side using a piece of sheet metal or cardboard. Then cut out the three squares and weigh them on the balance. The square on the hypotenuse should balance the other two.
Contained within this book are some rigorous proofs and some interesting perspectives regarding right angles and right-angled triangles. Doubtless, this theorem is one of the most useful concepts in mathematics.